I comportamenti di body-checking
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I comportamenti di body-checking

La teoria cognitivo comportamentale sostiene che l’eccessiva importanza attribuita al peso e alle forme corporee nella valutazione di sé sia la psicopatologia nucleare dei disturbi dell’alimentazione.   
Le espressioni comportamentali derivate da essa includono: 
  1. comportamenti finalizzati a modificare il bilancio energetico
  2. comportamenti che non modificano il bilancio energetico   

Tra i comportamenti che non modificano il bilancio energetico troviamo i comportamenti di body-checking o controllo del corpo.
Il check del corpo può essere di diversi tipi, classificabili in 5 categorie: 
  1. check del peso 
  2. check visivi 
  3. check tattili 
  4. check di confronto 
  5. check di rassicurazione.    

  1. Check del peso: pesarsi frequentemente, più volte al giorno, ad esempio prima e dopo il pasto. 
  2. Check visivi: esaminare frequentemente allo specchio o in qualsiasi superficie riflettente (ad esempio nelle vetrine) specifiche parti del corpo (es. pancia, cosce, sedere).
  3. Check tattili: misurare le circonferenze del corpo (es. vita, cosce, fianchi, polsi), prendere in mano le pieghe cutanee per valutarne le dimensioni, indossare abiti stretti per sentire come stanno, controllare se le cosce si toccano, toccare le ossa per verificare se si sentono.
  4. Check di confronto: guardare le donne più magre o con alcune particolari caratteristiche (es. pancia piatta, gambe magre e lunghe), confrontarsi con le modelle o con personaggi che appaiono sulle riviste o in televisione, informarsi del peso o della taglia corporea di altre persone.
  5. Check di rassicurazione: chiedere rassicurazioni agli altri sul proprio aspetto fisico, su come ci stanno i vestiti, sul peso o le forme corporee.           

Esiste un’associazione tra check del corpo ed evitamento dell’esposizione del corpo: le persone con disturbi dell’alimentazione passano frequentemente da periodi in cui controllano ripetutamente il loro peso e le forme corporee ad altri in cui evitano di pesarsi o di guardarsi.            
Il check del corpo contribuisce, insieme alle altre espressioni comportamentali derivate dal nucleo psicopatologico dei disturbi dell’alimentazione (eccessiva importanza attribuita al peso, alle forme corporee e al controllo dell’alimentazione nella valutazione di sé), a mantenere i pensieri e le preoccupazioni per il peso, le forme corporee e l’alimentazione e dunque lo schema di autovalutazione disfunzionale.          
I meccanismi per i quali il check del corpo è un fattore di mantenimento sono i seguenti: 
  • il check del corpo facilita lo sviluppo di bias cognitivi, come l’attenzione selettiva per parti del corpo di cui si è insoddisfatti, con conseguente aumento della preoccupazione e dell’insoddisfazione nei confronti delle forme corporee o del peso, se si effettua un check del peso
  • le informazioni ottenute dal check del corpo possono essere interpretate come una minaccia al controllo o un fallimento del controllo che può servire a mantenere la restrizione dietetica; ad esempio pesandosi frequentemente (controllando il peso più volte al giorno, dopo i pasti o dopo aver consumato cibo in eccesso) può verificarsi l’interpretazione delle normali fluttuazioni del peso corporeo nel senso di una perdita di controllo
  • il check del corpo può essere usato per creare uno stato di disagio in modo da motivarsi alla restrizione dietetica
  • il check del corpo, eseguito in uno stato di ansia forse può anche comportare una sovrastima delle dimensioni corporee. 

Il check del corpo può essere affrontato con varie strategie comportamentali. 
  1. Stabilire cosa sia un check funzionale del corpo 
  2. Sostituire gradualmente i comportamenti disfunzionali di check del corpo con comportamenti funzionali. 
Dunque lo scopo non è genericamente eliminare i comportamenti di check del corpo non funzionali ma sostituirli con altri comportamenti che risultino più funzionali. 
  1. Stabilire cosa sia un check funzionale del corpo: per quanto riguarda il controllo del peso un controllo funzionale consiste nel pesarsi una volta alla settimana; per quanto riguarda il guardarsi allo specchio è necessario valutare i motivi per guardarsi allo specchio (ad esempio per vedere se i capelli o i vestiti sono in ordine), quando è opportuno guardarsi (ad esempio la mattina quando ci si alza o prima di uscire), come guardarsi (ad esempio senza dare dei giudizi negativi), che cosa guardare (ad esempio il corpo nella sua interezza per vedere se i vestiti sono in ordine, il viso per vedere se i capelli o il trucco è in ordine), per quanto tempo (ad esempio stare davanti allo specchio brevemente), dove specchiarsi (ad esempio solo nello specchio del bagno quando ci si alza al mattino, solo nello specchio vicino all'ingresso prima di uscire di casa). 
  2. Sostituire gradualmente i comportamenti disfunzionali di check del corpo con comportamenti più funzionali
  • scrivere tutti gli episodi di check del corpo disfunzionale 
  • pianificare e mettere in pratica eliminazioni specifiche e ben definite di comportamenti di check del corpo disfunzionali con i corrispondenti comportamenti funzionali sostitutivi.     


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