Consigli speciali per persone speciali - Anziani
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Consigli speciali per persone speciali - Anziani

Gli anziani sani sono in genere nutriti adeguatamente, tuttavia lapopolazione anziana ha un maggior rischio di andare incontro a malnutrizione. 

I principali fattori che possono peggiorare l’alimentazione nell'anziano e quindi portare a malnutrizione sono: 
  • solitudine - legata alla vedovanza, ma anche all'isolamento sociale; da studi emerge che il 25% degli anziani consuma i pasti in solitudine e il 50% li prepara autonomamente, fattori che non stimolano la voglia di mangiare in maniera varia e possono anche portare o esacerbare condizioni di depressione 
  • basso reddito - conseguentemente spesso si scelgono alimenti di seconda scelta
  • invalidità, malattie croniche, depressione - con possibile riduzione dell'appetito e dell'esposizione alla luce solare, con conseguente carenza di vitamina D
  • diminuzione dell'acutezza dei sensi del gusto e dell'olfatto - con ripercussioni sulle scelte alimentari e sull'appetito
  • difficoltà di masticazione e digestive - con conseguente riduzione delle assunzioni alimentari e ripercusssioni sulla scelta degli alimenti
  • diminuzione della percezione dei segnali della sete - con conseguente rischio di disidratazione
  • uso di farmaci
  • scarsa educazione alimentare.

Elementi critici nell'alimentazione dell'anziano sono soprattutto: 
   
L’anziano in realtà, salvo specifiche controindicazioni, dovrebbe mangiare in modo simile all'adulto,  anche se il fabbisogno in energia diminuisce.
Un valido punto di riferimento resta dunque la dieta mediterranea, come esemplificata dalla piramide alimentare e secondo le Linee guida di corretta alimentazione precedentemente esposte. 
La dieta mediterranea ha anche un'azione protettiva contro il morbo di Alzheimer; in particolare l'olio di oliva, verdura e frutta aiutano a contrastare in parte i sintomi in chi ha già sviluppato la patologia e se il morbo di Alzheimer non è in fase avanzata, quindi nei primi anni di malattia (quando l'infiammazione non è ancora elevata e non si è ancora sviluppata demenza) gli integratori a base di omega 3 (oltre ovviamente ad un consumo regolare di pesce) potrebbero avere un ruolo importante nel rallentare il declino cognitivo: l'effetto protettivo degli acidi grassi del pesce sembrerebbe dovuto alle proprietà antinfiammatorie. 
In generale una dieta ricca di vitamine liposolubili, in particolare A ed E, e di carotenoidi può agire migliorando la funzionalità del sistema immunitario e i meccanismi di difesa antiossidante.
Le minori necessità caloriche, soprattutto dopo i 75 anni, sono dovute alla diminuzione del metabolismo basale (legata soprattutto alla riduzione della massa magra) e alla riduzione dell'attività fisica.
Il fabbisogno proteico nell'anziano è lo steso dell'adulto; tra gli alimenti proteici sarebbe bene inserire latte, formaggi (importanti anche per l'apporto di calcio), legumi, uova, pesce (importante anche per l'apporto di acidi grassi polinsaturi omega 3 e ferro) e carne (dando la preferenza a carne magra e pollame, fonti anche di ferro di cui spesso l’anziano è carente). 
È opportuno ridurre i grassi dando comunque la preferenza  all'olio di oliva, ad alcuni oli di semi, ai grassi del pesce e della frutta secca (in piccola quantità). 
Consigliabile il consumo di carboidrati complessi e buone quantità di fibra, quindi il consumo di cereali, pane integrale, legumi, verdura e frutta

Suggerimenti pratici:
  • consumare una dieta varia e appetibile
  • consuma regolarmente frutta, verdura e legumi
  • tenere sotto controllo il peso corporeo
  • cercare di mantenere, se possibile, uno stile di vita attivo
  • evitare il consumo frequente di pasti freddi e piatti piatti pronti, dedicando il giusto tempo alla preparazione dei pasti
  • limitare l'uso del sale e in generale l'assunzione di sodio
  • non eccedere con il consumo di grassi(soprattutto animali) e dolci
  • tenere conto di eventuali difficoltà di masticazione (anche per facilitare la digestione) e preparare gli alimenti in modo adeguato ad esempio privilegiando il consumo di minestre, purea di patate o verdure e frullati, scegliendo pane morbido o patate, tritando la carne, grattugiando la frutta 
  • evitare i pasti troppo abbondanti e frazionare l’alimentazione nell'arco della giornata, non saltando la prima colazione e facendo 3 pasti principali leggeri e 2 spuntini
  • limitare il consumo di alcolici



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