Assunzione di vitamine del gruppo B nello sportivo
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Assunzione di vitamine del gruppo B nello sportivo

Abbiamo detto che lo sportivo dovrà porre particolare attenzione ad alcuni aspetti riguardanti la propria alimentazione:
Per ciò che riguarda il come è importante che lo sortivo introduca le giuste quantità di acqua per garantire un'ottimale idratazione oltre alla giusta quantità di macronutrienti (carboidrati, grassi e proteine) e micronutrienti (vitamine e sali minerali); tra i micronutrienti vedremo ora l'importanza di introdurre adeguate quantità di vitamine del gruppo B.

Perché le vitamine del gruppo B sono importanti per chi pratica attività fisica? 
Le vitamine del gruppo B sono importanti per chiunque e in particolare per chi pratica attività fisica perché hanno un ruolo importante nel metabolismo cellulare, nella produzione di energia e per il sistema nervoso.
Un loro apporto carente può determinare un decremento del rendimento atletico e ostacolare i processi di riparazione del tessuto muscolare, influenzando negativamente la capacità di autoriparazione del corpo.
I rischi di carenza riguardano soprattutto gli sportivi che devono tenere sotto controllo il proprio peso (ad esempio ginnaste e ballerine, ma anche pugili) e in generale tutte quelle persone che pongono un'attenzione esasperata alla forma fisica e al controllo del peso corporeo e che spesso  seguono diete troppo rigide e restrittive, squilibrate dal punto di vista nutrizionale: spesso chi soffre di disturbi alimentari fa ricorso alla pratica eccessiva di attività fisica come metodo di controllo del peso.

Quali vitamine fanno parte del gruppo B e quali funzioni hanno?
  • B1 o tiamina - partecipa al metabolismo dei carboidrati
  • B2 o riboflavina  - partecipa al metabolismo energetico
  • B3 o niacina - partecipa al metabolismo energetico
  • B5 o acido pantotenico - regola il metabolismo di altri nutrienti
  • B6 o piridossina - partecipa al metabolismo proteico
  • B8 o biotina o vitamina H - regola il metabolismo di altri nutrienti e partecipa alla formazione del glicogeno
  • B9 o acido folico o folacina o vitamina M - partecipa al metabolismo di proteine e acidi nucleici
  • B12 o cobalamina - importante per la replicazione cellulare e per l'integrità del sistema nervoso centrale e periferico

Quali vitamine del gruppo B hanno più importanza per lo sportivo e per quale motivo?
  • B1 - per le funzioni che svolge nel metabolismo dei carboidrati
  • B2 - per le funzioni che svolge nel metabolismo energetico e nell'utilizzazione dei grassi
  • B6 - per le funzioni che svolge nel metabolismo proteico, favorendo una buona utilizzazione dell proteine, e perchè favorisce il rilascio del glicogeno (immagazzinato nel fagato e nei muscoli)
  • B12 - indispensabile per il buon funzionamento del sistema nervoso
Comunque tutte le vitamine del gruppo B, dato il ruolo che svolgono nelle funzioni metaboliche, sono importanti per chi fa attività fisica.

Dove troviamo le vitamine del gruppo B?

  • B1 - cereali integrali, legumi e lievito 
  • B2 - lievito, latte, fegato, uova, cereali integrali, legumi e verdure in genere
  • B3 - carne, pesce, cereali integrali, legumi, funghi, verdura e frutta in genere
  • B5 - alimenti animali e vegetali in genere
  • B6 - fegato, tonno, cereali integrali, legumi e verdura in genere
  • B8 -  cereali integrali, legumi, frutta secca, lievito
  • B9 - cereali integrali, verdure a foglia verde, legumi e lievito
  • B12 - latte e formaggi, fegato e carne in genere, pesce, uova - presente solo negli alimenti di origine animale, chi segue una dieta vegetariana e a maggior ragione chi segue una dieta vegana, deve assumere questa vitamina attraverso un'adeguata integrazione o con l'assunzione di alimenti vegetali addizionati
Le vitamine del gruppo B fanno parte delle vitamine idrosolubili (solubili in acqua), perciò vengono in parte perse nell'acqua di cottura, e sono in molti casi termolabili (cioè risentono della cottura, tanto più quanto più la cottura è lunga) e fotolabili (cioè risentono dell'esposizione alla luce, per cui è utile conservare gli alimenti che le contengono al riparo dalla luce); per questi motivi è preferibile quando possibile consumare gli alimenti non solo cotti ma anche crudi o comunque preferire cotturerapide e che limitino l'immersione in acqua: quindi preferire ad esempio la cottura a vapore alla lessatura o comunque cuocere in poco liquido.

Sono termolabili la vit. B1, B5, B6 e B9: alimenti come i cereali integrali, i legumi e il fegato possono essere consumati solo previa cottura ma noi possiamo limitare le perdite non prolungando oltre il necessario i tempi di cottura. 
Sono fotolabili la vit. B2, B6 e B9: conserviamo al riparo dalla luce soprattutto i cerali, i legumi e la verdura.


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