Il sale: meglio poco
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Il sale: meglio poco

Come possiamo mettere in pratica le Linee Guida per una sana alimentazione?

Chiarimenti e suggerimenti per passare dalla teoria alla pratica, vedendo le linee guida una per una.

Vediamo insieme la sesta delle linee guida
Il sale: meglio poco

Come e perché metterla in pratica?


Il nostro fabbisogno di sodio è di circa 0,1 - 0,6 g al giorno, a seconda di quanto sodio viene eliminato dall'organismo. Ogni grammo di sale (cloruro di sodio) contiene 0,4 g di sodio e non sarebbe neppure necessario l’utilizzo del sale (infatti il sodio contenuto negli alimenti è sufficiente a coprire i nostri fabbisogni), se non fosse per motivi dettati dal gusto e dall'abitudine


Perché limitare l'uso del sale?

Dato il grande utilizzo del sale da cucina e di alimenti contenenti grandi quantità di sodio si comprende quanto sia facile consumarne quantità eccessive ed un consumo eccessivo di sale può favorire la comparsa di ipertensione arteriosa, malattie cardiovascolari e a carico dei reni; inoltre può aumentare il rischio di tumori dello stomaco e predisporre all'osteoporosi  aumentando le perdite urinarie di calcio.   


Dove troviamo il sodio?

Le principali fonti di sodio nell'alimentazione sono: 
  • Il sodio contenuto naturalmente negli alimenti (come frutta, verdura, carne e pesce) e nell'acqua
  • Il sodio contenuto nel sale da cucina, aggiunto in cottura o direttamente a tavola ed abbondante soprattutto nei cibi preparati fuori casa
  • Il sodio contenuto nei prodotti trasformati, come pane e prodotti da forno, insaccati, formaggi, piatti pronti, conserve di pesce e cibi conservati in genere, dado da brodo, salse tipo ketkhup o maionese e salsa di soia

Contenuto di sodio di alcuni alimenti:   

ALIMENTO (PORZIONE INDICATIVA)
CONTENUTO DI SODIO IN GRAMMI
Sale (1 c - 6 g)
2,4
Dado per brodo (1/4 di dado - 3 g)
0,5
Senape (1 C da tavola - 14 g)
0,41
Salsa do soia (1 C da tavola - 6 g)
0,34
Ketkhup (1 C da tavola - 14 g)
0,16
Maionese (1 C da tavola - 14 g)
0,07
Prosciutto crudo (50 g)
1,29
Salame Milano (50 g)
0,75
Prosciutto cotto (50 g)
0,36
Verdure sott'aceto (60 g)
0,48
Patatine in sacchetto (1 confezione da 25 g) 
0,27
Provolone (50 g)
0,34 
Formaggino (1 da 22 g)
0,22
Mozzarella di mucca (100 g)
0,20
Parmigiano grattugiato (1 C da tavola - 10 g) 
0,06 
Cereali da prima colazione (30 g) 
0,33 
Cornetto semplice (1 da 40 g) 
0,16 
Pane (50 g) 
0,15 
Pane insipido (50 g) 
tracce 
 

Come ridurre l'uso del sale e l'apporto di sodio?

Se modiche quantità di sale posso realmente concorrere a migliorare il gusto di alcuni alimenti, una sua aggiunta eccessiva copre il gusto naturale dei cibi ed abitua il nostro palato ai sapori forti, diseducandolo nel contempo ad apprezzare le sfumature dei sapori naturali; gradualmente è  possibile rieducare il nostro palato ad avvertire ed apprezzare i sapori più delicati, attraverso una riduzione graduale dell’aggiunta di sale sugli alimenti da effettuarsi nell'arco di qualche settimana o anche di qualche mese
Il sapore degli alimenti può comunqueessere migliorato, o più semplicemente reso più intenso, utilizzando spezie ed erbe aromatiche, succo di limone o aceto

  • Riduci progressivamente l’uso di sale sia a tavola che in cucina (non portare la saliera in tavola, cerca di evitare di aggiungere sale e se proprio non puoi farne a meno aggiungine pochissimo e controlla il risultato, utilizza miscele di sale e spezie, sale ed erbe aromatiche, sale e semi di sesamo al posto del sale semplice)
  • Preferisci al sale comune il sale iodato
  • Limita l’utilizzo di dadi da brodo e salse con elevato contenuto di sodio (in caso di utilizzo evita di utilizzare anche il sale)
  • Utilizza erbe aromatiche e spezie, succo di limone o aceto per insaporire i cibi 
  • Preferisci il pane insipido, soprattutto per accompagnare alimenti già naturalmente saporiti, al pane comune
  • Non consumare abitualmente alimenti trasformati ricchi di sodio, come gli snack salati
  • Preferisci gli alimenti a basso contenuto di sodio (ad esempio tonno in scatola a basso contenuto di sodio)
  • Nella normale attività sportiva è sufficiente la semplice acqua, eventualmente addizionata con succo di limone o di altri agrumi, per reintegrare i liquidi perduti con la sudorazione; riserva gli integratori idrosalini ad occasioni particolari
  • Nelle pappe dei bambini, almeno nel primo anno di vita, non aggiungere sale


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