Metodi di cottura: la cottura a vapore
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Metodi di cottura: la cottura a vapore

Nella cottura a vapore il liquido di cottura (acqua tal quale o arricchita) portato a ebollizione evapora e raggiunge sotto forma appunto di vapore gli alimenti posizionati sopra di esso: non c'è dunque contatto diretto tra alimento e liquido di cottura.
La cottura al vapore permette di limitare la perdita dei nutrienti, rispetto alla lessatura ad esempio limita molto la perdita delle vitamine idrosolubili (che essendo appunto solubili in acqua vengono in gran parte disperse nell'acqua di cottura durante la lessatura) e riduce anche la perdita di sali minerali.
La cottura a vapore inoltre non richiede l'aggiunta di grassi e data la sua capacità di rispettare la consistenza, i colori e il sapore degli alimenti, aiuta anche a limitare la quantità di condimenti aggiunti. Volendo non solo preservare ma anche arricchire il sapore dei cibi è possibile aggiungere al liquido di cottura spezie o erbe aromatiche, oltre che aglio, cipolla, limone, arancia o vino. 
La cottura a vapore risulta particolarmente adatta per la cottura di ortaggi, carne, pesce e frutta; i risultati sono migliori se gli alimenti vengono precedentemente tagliati a pezzi di piccole dimensioni e approssimativamente della stessa misura.
Per tale tipo di cottura è possibile utilizzare i tradizionali cestelli di bambù o moderni cestelli in acciaio (posizionati sopra il liquido utilizzando una normale pentola o una pentola a pressione); in alternativa è possibile utilizzare il forno a vapore o apparecchi specifici per la cottura a vapore.
Per prevenire la formazione di condensa i cibi più delicati possono essere coperti con della pellicola per forno a microonde.

Tempi di cottura indicativi (i tempi di cottura aumentano con l'aumentare delle dimensioni e della quantità)
 
ALIMENTO
TIPO
QUANTITA
TEMPO DI COTTURA
 
Petto di pollo o tacchino
piccoli pezzetti
600 g
20'
 
Filetto di maiale
a fette sottili
600 g
35'
 
Filetti di pesce
freschi o scongelati
600 g
15'
 
Bistecche di pesce
fresche
600 g
20'
 
Pesce intero 
fresco
600 g 
25'
 
Cozze
fresche
1 kg
15-20'
 
Gamberetti 
freschi
200 g
5'
 
Asparagi - Cavolo - Patate
freschi - a pezzetti
600 g
20'
 
Broccoli - Cavolfiore - Piselli
piccoli pezzetti
freschi o surgelati
 400 g
20'
 
Zucchine
fresche - fette sottili
600 g
12'  
 
Fagiolini - Porri
 freschi
500 g
30'
 
Carote - Taccole
fresche - fette sottili
500 g  
15'
 
Pere
intere o a metà
4
20'
 
in quarti
4
12' 

Condimento per pesce a vapore
Frullare 1 C di olio a porzione con limone e aromi a piacere (es. timo, prezzemolo, menta, basilico, erba cipollina) e usare per condire il pesce al vapore (ottimo per branzino, orata, sogliola, salmone ma anche per la più economica trota)

Involtini di tacchino alla senape
Spalmare 1 C di senape su 4 fettine di tacchino, arrotolarle e fissarle con uno stuzzicadenti; cuocere a vapore per 25-30'.
Accompagnare con una salsa preparata con 1 C di senape e 4 C di yogurt al naturale

Terrina di verdure
Cuocere a vapore 600 g di verdure e ridurle in crema con un robot da cucina.
Mescolarle con 6 albumi d'uovo montati a neve ferma, 150 g di ricotta magra, sale, pepe e una grattata di noce moscata o maggiorana.
Distribuire il composto ottenuto in ciotoline individuali e cuocere a vapore per 40'






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